Research

Research summaries from the Evidence Group of the UK Council for Child Internet Safety

Research and evidence is vital to inform the promotion of a safer online environment for children. The UKCCIS Evidence Group provides UKCCIS with a timely, critical and rigorous account of the relevant research. It includes representatives from academia, NGOs and police, and meets regularly in order to identify, evaluate and commission new research relevant to child internet safety.

The Research Highlights Series overviews new findings as they become available. The Evidence Group exercises editorial control over the selection and production of these Research Highlights, and we invite researchers and stakeholders to inform us of recent and ongoing research.

Introduction to the Research Highlights Series

Guidelines for the submission of a UKCCIS Evidence Group Research Highlight

Guidelines about good quality research

Research Highlights Series

96: Sexting and Young People: The Parent's View

NSPCC (August 2016) Full Publication
A summary of the results of Ofcom’s Children’s Media Lives Study Year 2. This is a small-scale, qualitative study which complements Ofcom’s quantitative media literacy surveys. It tracks the same 18 children aged 8-15 over a 3 year period in order to provide an in-depth understanding of how this sample of children are thinking about and using digital media. The second wave of ethnographic research was conducted in spring 2015. This Research Highlight presents a summary of the results of the study which relate to social media and identity. 

95: Children’s Media Lives: Year 2 Findings - Social Media and Identity

ESRO/Ofcom (January 2016) Full Publication
A summary of the results of Ofcom’s Children’s Media Lives Study Year 2. This is a small-scale, qualitative study which complements Ofcom’s quantitative media literacy surveys. It tracks the same 18 children aged 8-15 over a 3 year period in order to provide an in-depth understanding of how this sample of children are thinking about and using digital media. The second wave of ethnographic research was conducted in spring 2015. This Research Highlight presents a summary of the results of the study which relate to social media and identity. 

94: Children’s Media Lives: Year 2 Findings – Role of TV and Search Behaviours  

ESRO/Ofcom (January 2016) Full Publication
A summary of the results of Ofcom’s Children’s Media Lives Study Year 2. This is a small-scale, qualitative study which complements Ofcom’s quantitative media literacy surveys. It tracks the same 18 children aged 8-15 over a 3 year period in order to provide an in-depth understanding of how this sample of children are thinking about and using digital media. The second wave of ethnographic research was conducted in spring 2015. This Research Highlight presents a summary of the results of the study which relate to the role of TV, search behaviours and factors that shape trust.

93: Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes – Parental Concerns and Mediation

Ofcom (November 2015) Full Publication
A summary of the results of Ofcom Children’s Media Literacy Tracker, a large-scale quantitative survey based on in-home interviews with children aged 5-15 and their parents/carers and with parents of children aged 3-4. From April to June 2015, 1,379 in-home interviews with parents and children aged 5-15 were conducted, along with 688 interviews with parents of children aged 3-4. This Research Highlight presents the results from the report which relate to the analysis of data on parental concerns and mediation. 

92: Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes - Children’s Media Access, Use and Critical Understanding

Ofcom (November 2015) Full Publication
A summary of the results of Ofcom Children’s Media Literacy Tracker, a large-scale quantitative survey based on in-home interviews with children aged 5-15 and their parents/carers and with parents of children aged 3-4. From April to June 2015, 1,379 in-home interviews with parents and children aged 5-15 were conducted, along with 688 interviews with parents of children aged 3-4. This Research Highlight presents the results from the report which relate to the analysis of data on children’s media use and critical understanding.

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91: Safer Internet Day 2016 Creating a Better Internet for All

UK Safer Internet Centre / ResearchBods (February 2016) Full Publication
A summary of the results of an online survey of young peoples’ attitudes, experiences and responses to positives and negatives online conducted for Safer Internet Day 2016. This addressed the role of the internet in facilitating rights and promoting empowerment, while also potentially facilitating online hate. The research was conducted by ResearchBods between 8-20th January 2016 with a representative sample of 1,512 young people aged 13-18 years old in the United Kingdom.

90: Safer Internet Day 2015: Campaign Evaluation

Populus (November 2015) 
A summary of the results of an online survey of a nationally representative group of adults, teens and children to assess the effectiveness of Safer Internet Day and the Be Smart Campaign (BBC). Populus conducted 1,506 online interviews with 502 children aged 11-13 years, 502 aged 14-16 years, and 502 parents of children aged 11-16 (with quotas set on age, gender and region). 

89: How Parents of Young Children Manage Digital Devices at Home

EU Kids Online, LSE (November 2015) Full publication
A summary of the results of the re-analysis of the qualitative research study conducted with the families of young children aged 0-8 years across seven European countries (N = 70) which examined parental management of digital devices at home.

88: ISEC Illegal Use of the Internet Project — Stakeholder Consultation

Centre for Abuse and Trauma Studies, Middlesex University (November 2015) Full publication
A summary of the results of a small scale stakeholder consultation study conducted as part of the ISEC Illegal Use of the Internet Project. Eleven stakeholders were recruited across policing, industry, government, third sector and academia throughout England and Wales. Semi-structured interviews probing elements of the investigative and legal parameters of online CSE were conducted and a number of key issues identified. 

87: Children’s Media Lives: Year 1 Findings – Advertising, Content Creation and Funding

ESRO/Ofcom (October 2015) Full publication
A summary of the results of Ofcom Children’s Media Lives Year 1 Study. This is a small-scale, qualitative study which complements Ofcom’s quantitative media literacy surveys. It tracks the same 18 children aged 8-15 over a 3 year period in order to provide an in-depth understanding of how this sample of children are thinking about and using digital media. The first of three waves of ethnographic research was conducted in autumn 2014. This Research Highlights presents a summary of the results of the study in relation to advertising, content creation and funding.

86: Children’s Media Lives: Year 1 Findings - Devices and Activities  

ESRO/Ofcom (October 2015) Full publication
A summary of the results of Ofcom Children’s Media Lives Year 1 Study. This is a small-scale, qualitative study which complements Ofcom’s quantitative media literacy surveys. It tracks the same 18 children aged 8-15 over a 3 year period in order to provide an in-depth understanding of how this sample of children are thinking about and using digital media. The first of three waves of ethnographic research was conducted in autumn 2014. This Research Highlights presents a summary of the results of the study in relation to devices and activities.

85: Children’s Media Lives: Year 1 Findings - Online Safety, Family Dynamics, Parental Concerns and Mediation 

ESRO/Ofcom (October 2015) Full publication
A summary of the results of Ofcom Children’s Media Lives Year 1 Study. This is a small-scale, qualitative study which complements Ofcom’s quantitative media literacy surveys. It tracks the same 18 children aged 8-15 over a 3 year period in order to provide an in-depth understanding of how this sample of children are thinking about and using digital media. The first of three waves of ethnographic research was conducted in autumn 2014. This Research Highlights presents a summary of the results of the study in relation to online safety, family dynamics, parental concerns and mediation. 

84: Childwise Monitor PreSchool Report 2015

Childwise (October 2015)
A summary of the results of the CHILDWISE Monitor Pre-School Report 2015. It provides an overview of trends in the media use of children aged up to 4 years. 1034 online interviews were conducted with parents of children aged between 6 months and 4 years old during June 2015.

83: Net Children Go Mobile: UK Qualitative Research Results

Net Children Go Mobile (July 2015) Full publication
A summary of the UK results of a larger scale European qualitative study of the perceptions and perspectives of parents, teachers and children regarding children’s use of smartphones and tablets. 19 boys and 19 girls aged 9-16 took part in the research, either in single sex focus groups in schools, individual interviews in schools, and interviews with individuals or single sex pairs in homes. 3 focus groups (N = 17) with parents of children aged 11-17 were conducted, as well as 2 individual parental interviews. 2 focus groups (N = 13) with teachers and 1 (N = 4) with others working with children were also undertaken. Data collection occurred between January and September 2014.

82: Net Children Go Mobile: European Qualitative Research Results

Net Children Go Mobile (July 2015) Full publication
A summary of a large scale European qualitative study of the perceptions and perspectives of children, parents, teachers and others working with young people regarding the adoption, use, opportunities and risks associated with use of smartphones and tablets. Data were collected in nine European countries (e.g., Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, UK). 55 focus groups (N = 219) and 107 interviews (N = 108) were conducted with children aged 9-16, and 40 focus groups (N = 180) and 44 interviews (N = 50) were conducted with adults across the nine countries. Children were recruited through at least 3 different schools and youth centres, and adults through schools, parent / teacher organisations etc. Data collection occurred between January and September 2014.

81: Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology: A Qualitative Exploratory Study Across Seven Countries

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (June 2015) Full publication
A summary of a European pilot study undertaken across 7 countries. 70 focus groups were undertaken with children aged 6-7, their siblings and parents about their use of the internet and related technologies. Data were collected between September and mid October 2014. 

80: EU Kids Online: The Meaning of Online Problematic Situations for Children

EU Kids Online (June 2015) Full publication
A summary of a report presenting the results of a large scale European study which used interviews and focus groups with children aged 9–16 (N = 378) in 9 European countries to examine the meaning of problematic online experiences. Schools and youth centres were used to recruit children for 56 focus groups and 114 interviews between February and September 2013.

79: EU Kids Online: Developing Social Media Literacy

EU Kids Online (June 2015) Full publication
A summary of a report presenting the results of a large scale European study which used interviews and focus groups with children aged 9–16 (N = 378) in 9 European countries to examine social media literacy. Schools and youth centres were used to recruit children for 56 focus groups and 114 interviews between February and September 2013.

78: Internet Watch Foundation: Study of Youth-Produced Sexual Content

IWF (June 2015) Full publication
An overview of the results of a 3 month study by IWF Internet Content Analysts examining the availability of images and video assessed as being self-generated content featuring young people. It used a combination of proactively sourced content from search engines, historic IWF data and leads from public reports to locate “youth-produced sexual content” depicting “young people” online.

77: Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes - Parental Mediation

Ofcom (February 2015) Full publication
A summary of the results of the Ofcom’s Children’s Media Literacy Tracker, a large-scale quantitative survey based on in-home interviews with children aged 5-15 and their parents/carers (N = 1689 conducted from April-June 2013). In 2013, this survey was also conducted with parents of children aged 3-4 (N = 685). This Research Highlight presents the results from the report which relate to the analysis of data on parental mediation.

76: Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes - Children's Usage

Ofcom (February 2015) Full publication
A summary of the results of the Ofcom’s Children’s Media Literacy, a large-scale quantitative survey based on in-home interviews with children aged 5-15 and their parents/carers (N = 1660 conducted April-June 2013). In 2014, this survey was also conducted with parents of children aged 3-4 (N = 731). This Research Highlight presents the results from the report which relate to the analysis of data on children’s media use online.

75: Net Aware: A Parent's Guide to Social Networking Sites

NSPCC (January 2015)
The results of a large scale quantitative study which informed the design of the NSPCC Netaware Guide. The NSPCC consulted with 1854 children and young people aged 11-18 in order to establish the most used social networking platforms. 511 parents were then recruited from the parenting website Mumsnet to review the most popular websites, apps and games against a set of criteria based on national and international best practice in keeping children safe online.

74: Safer Internet Day 2014: Campaign Evaluation

Populus (January 2015)
A summary of the results of an online survey of a nationally representative group of adults, teens and children to assess the effectiveness of the Safer Internet Day campaign. A post-campaign survey targeted 525 children aged 8-12 years, 525 teenagers aged 13-17 years, 520 parents with children aged 8-17, and 519 adults aged 18+. 

73: Childwise Monitor 2014-15

Childwise (January 2015) Full publication
An overview of the results of the CHILDWISE Monitor Report 2014-15. This large scale, quantitative study consulted a sample of nearly 2200 children and young people aged 5–16 in 80 schools across the UK.  Children aged 5 and 6 were subject to face to face interview, and children aged 7–16 were surveyed online.  

72: Childwise Monitor Pre-School Report 2014

Childwise (September 2014Full publication
A summary of the results of the CHILDWISE Monitor Pre-School Report 2014. It provides an overview of trends in the media use of children aged up to 4 years. 200 face-to-face street interviews were conducted with parents of children aged between 6 months and 4 years old during August 2014. 

71: Net Children Go Mobile: The UK Report

Net Children Go Mobile and EU Kids Online (July 2014Full publication
A summary of the results of the UK (N = 516) collected as part of the Net Children Go Mobile in-home survey among 3,500 9-16 year-old internet users in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Portugal, and the UK, using a stratified random sample and self-completion methods.

70: Net Children Go Mobile: Risks and Opportunities

Net Children Go Mobile (May 2014Full publication
A summary of the results of the Net Children Go Mobile in-home survey conducted among 3,500 9-16 year-old internet users in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Portugal, and the UK, using a stratified random sample and self-completion methods.

69: Basically… Porn is Everywhere: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

Middlesex University and the Office of the Children's Commissioner (May 2014Full publication
A summary of the results of the Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) undertaken by Middlesex University for the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) focusing on the effects of  exposure and access to pornography on children and young people. It drew on research evidence published between January 1983 and January 2013, and considered 276 academic and other items.

68: The Cybersurvey for Suffolk

Adrienne Katz, Youth Work Consulting (May 2014Full publication
A summary of the results of the Suffolk Cybersurvey 2013 which aimed to inform the work of the e-Safer Suffolk Strategy. It examined young people’s access to the Internet, their experiences of cyberbullying and other online aggression, as well as how e-safety education is perceived and adhered to. Data were collected from 1685 respondents in schools across the county in the autumn 2013 (52% boys and 48% girls). The report discusses the results of the analysis in comparison to the results obtained in 2012 (N = 2893 responses) and 2011 (N = 1726).

67: To Tell Or Not to Tell? Youth’s Responses to Unwanted Internet Experiences

Lund University, Sweden & University of New Hampshire, USA (May 2015Full publication
A summary of the results of the large scale and nationally representative Third Youth Internet Safety Survey (YISS-3) undertaken in the USA between August, 2010 and January, 2011. The study aimed to quantify youth experiences with unwanted sexual solicitations, harassment and unwanted exposure to pornography online. The sample consisted of 1,560 Internet users aged 10-17 and their caretakers. The results presented are based on data from those participants who reported unwanted Internet experiences (e.g., sexual solicitation, online harassment, unwanted exposure to pornography) and who answered follow-up questions about whether they had told someone about the experience (n = 134, n = 174 and n = 346 respectively) or how the situation ended (n = 134, n = 170 and n = 348 respectively).

66: What do 17,000 children in London tell us about online safety? The London Esafety Report

3BM and London Grid for Learning (March 2014Full publication
A summary of the main findings and messages from the London Esafety Report. This large scale quantitative survey of school children in Years 3-9 was designed by the London E-safety Board. All schools across London were sent information about the survey as part of a global communications from the CEO of the London Grid. This targeted head teachers and named contacts within schools in 2013, inviting them to get their classes to complete either in school or at home. Locally, it was also promoted in many Local Authorities. 17,000 responses were deemed useful or complete and used as the basis of the report.

65: Are crimes by online predators different from crimes by sex offenders who know youth in person?

Crimes Against Children Research Centre, University of New Hampshire (March 2014Full publication
A summary of the results of the Third National Juvenile Online Victimization (NJOV-3) Study undertaken in the USA. A stratified national sample of 2,653 U.S. law enforcement agencies were contacted to request data on arrests in 2009 for Internet-related sexual exploitation against minors, with detailed telephone interviews conducted with investigators about individual cases. The data presented examines a subset of arrest cases that included the use of online sexual communications (n = 143 online-meeting offenders; n = 139 know-in-person/online offenders).

64: Online harassment in context: trends from three youth internet safety surveys (2000, 2005, 2010)

Crimes Against Children Research Centre, University of New Hampshire (March 2014Full publication
A summary of the results of the 3 large scale and nationally representative YISS Surveys undertaken in the USA to quantify youth experiences with unwanted sexual solicitations, harassment and unwanted exposure to pornography online. Respondents were young people aged 10-17, who had used the Internet at least once a month for the past 6 months, and a caregiver. Data collection for YISS-1, YISS-2, and YISS-3 occurred between August 1999 and February 2000, March and June 2005, and August 2010 and January 2011 respectively. For all three YISS studies, a sample size of 1,500 was predetermined based upon a maximum expected sampling error of < 2.5% at the 5% significance level.

63: Victims' Voices: The impact of online grooming and sexual abuse

University of Birmingham and CEOP (March 2014Full publication
An overview of the results of a small scale qualitative study conducted in the UK with the victims of online grooming and sexual abuse (N = 8).

62: NCMEC Statistical Report

NCMEC (Feb 2014) Full publication
An overview of statistical information provided by the National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) in the U.S. relating to the child abuse images they have dealt with since the launch of their Exploited Children’s Unit in 1998 up to and including 11th November 2012.

61: The Experiences of Children Aged 11-16 on Social Networking Sites

ChildLine (Feb 2014)
A summary of a report presenting the results of a large scale, representative online survey of 11-16 year olds about their use of social networking sites (N = 1024). The study was conducted for the NSPCC by the market research agency, ResearchBods.

60: The Experiences of Children Aged 11-12 on Social Networking Sites

ChildLine (Feb 2014) Full publication
A summary of a report presenting the results of data collected from 11-12 year olds as part of a large scale, representative online survey of 11-16 year olds about their use of social networking sites (N = 1024). The study was conducted for the NSPCC by the market research agency, ResearchBods.

59: CHILDWISE Monitor Report

Childwise (Feb 2014) Full publication
An overview of the results of the CHILDWISE Monitor Report 2013-14. This large scale, quantitative study consulted a sample of more than 2400 children and young people aged 5–16 in 80 schools across the UK.  Children aged 5 and 6 were subject to face to face interview, and children aged 7–16 were surveyed online.

58: Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes - Take Up and Use Report

Ofcom (Oct 2013) Full publication
A summary of the results of the Ofcom’s Children’s Media Literacy Tracker, a large-scale quantitative survey based on in-home interviews with children aged 5-15 and their parents/carers (N = 1689 conducted from April-June 2013). In 2013, this survey was also conducted with parents of children aged 3-4 (N = 685).

57: Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes - Online Concerns and Mediation Report

Ofcom (Oct 2013) Full publication
A summary of the results of the Ofcom’s Children’s Media Literacy Tracker, a large-scale quantitative survey based on in-home interviews with children aged 5-15 and their parents/carers (N = 1689 conducted from April-June 2013). In 2013, this survey was also conducted with parents of children aged 3-4 (N = 685).

56: Country Classification - Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation

EU Kids Online and LSE (Sept 2013) Full publication
A summary of a report which updates and deepens understanding of cross-national differences among the countries surveyed in the EU Kids Online Project. It examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm experienced by the children in each country. It also takes into account the ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use in each country. 

55: Zero to Eight Report - Very young children and their internet use

EU Kids Online and LSE (Sept 2013) Full publication
A summary of the key findings of a report by EU Kids Online on the currently available literature on internet use by very young children (aged 0-8 years). It is based on a review of their European Evidence Database which collates other research on European children’s online activities, risks and safety. The report reviews this growing literature to draw together what is already known, or not known, regarding the online experiences of children under nine years old.

54: ChildLine Online Issues Report 2012-13

ChildLine (Sept 2013)
A summary of the results of analysis of the over 10,600 counselling sessions ChildLine received in 2012-13 where young people talked about a problem they had experienced online. These include cyberbullying, online sexual abuse, sexting, social networking and online safety issues. 

53: Child Pornography and Likelihood of Contact Abuse: a comparison between contact child sexul offenders and noncontact offenders

Michelle McManus (University of Central Lancashire) (July 2013)
A summary of the results of a study examining discriminatory differences between dual and noncontact offenders in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, quantity and type of Indecent Images of Children possessed, and internet activity. The sample consisted of 120 (60 dual and 60 noncontact) adult male IIOC offenders aged 18 years and older selected through stratified opportunity sampling. All 120 offenders were arrested between January 8, 2007 and February 25, 2011. Data collection occurred between May 2009 and August 2011.

52: Protecting Children Online: Teachers' Perspectives on E-safety

Vital & NFER (July 2013) Full publication
A summary of the results of a study conducted by NFER on behalf of Vital to establish the views of teachers about different aspects of e-safety. The nationally representative sample consisted of 1315 practising teachers from 1051 mainstream schools (54% primary, 46% secondary). The survey was carried out between the 3rd and 6th January, 2012.

51: Safer Internet Day 2013 - Campaign Evaluation

Other Lines (July 2013) 
A summary of the results of an online survey for children aged 8-12 (N = 523), teenagers aged 13-18 (N = 1,761) and adults (N = 2,032), to assess awareness of Safer Internet Day and the impact of the campaign on behaviour and attitudes.

50: Childwise Report: Trends in Media Use

Childwise (Jan 2013) Full publication
A large scale quantitative survey of the media ownership, internet access and social networking sites use of children and young people aged 5-16 (N = 3000).

49: EU Kids Online - In their own words: What bothers children online?

EU Kids Online and LSE (Feb 2013) Full publication
A summary of the results of the analysis of 9,636 responses to the open-ended question: “What things on the internet would bother people about your age?” asked by the EU Kids Online questionnaire. This large-scale quantitative survey was administered face-to-face at home to a random stratified sample of 25,142 children aged 9-16 who use the internet, plus one of their parents, during Spring/Summer 2010 in 25 European countries. 

48: Virtually Anorexic - Where's the harm? A research study of pro-anorexia websites

University Campus Suffolk (Nov 2012) Full publication
A summary of the results of a qualitative study of 126 websites and blogs identified through a Google search for “pro-anorexia” between January and June 1012. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge and understanding of pro-anorexia sites and online communities, and to provide a review of the risks in relation to their use by young people.

47: Safer Internet Day Report - Have your Say: Listening to young people about their online rights and responsibilities

UK Safer Internet Centre (Feb 2013) Full publication
A summary of the results of the UK’s largest ever survey into young people’s attitudes toward online rights and responsibilities, involving a large-scale quantitative survey with over 24,000 young people age 7-19 years and qualitative findings from nine focus groups across the UK. 

46: CHILDWISE Monitor Pre-School Report 2012

ChildWise (May 2012) Full publication
An overview of the results of the CHILDWISE Monitor Pre-School Report 2012, and provides an overview of trends in the media use of children aged up to 4 years. 200 face-to-face street interviews were conducted with parents of children aged between 6 months and 4 years old during May 2012. 

45: FOSI Research: The Online Generation Gap – Contrasting Attitudes and Behaviours of Parents and Teens

The Family Online Safety Institute (Nov 2012) Full publication
A summary of the results of a study based on two nationwide online surveys in the U.S., the first involving 511 13-17 year-olds who used the internet at least occasionally, and the second of 500 parents of 13–17 year-olds who accessed the internet. 

44: Internet Watch Foundation: Study of Self-Generated Sexually Explicit Images & Videos Featuring Young People Online

The Internet Watch Foundation (Nov 2012) Full publication
An overview of the results of a 4 week study by IWF Internet Content Analysts identifying images and video assessed as being self-generated content featuring young people. Illustrative quotes from young people who have made reports about such images are also included. 

43: Young People’s Online Behaviour : Findings from the European Online Grooming Project

The European Online Grooming Project (Apr 2012) Full publication
A summary of the results of Phase 3 of the European Online Grooming Project. This focused on a series of focus groups (N = 12) conducted with young people aged 11-16 years old in three European countries (UK, Italy and Belgium).

42: Online Offending Behaviour: Findings from the European Online Grooming Project

The European Online Grooming Project (Apr 2012) Full publication
A summary of the results of Phase 2 of the European Online Grooming Project. This focused on understanding groomers’ behaviour. This involved in-depth interviews with male offenders convicted of online grooming in the UK, Belgium and Norway (N = 33). Online groomers’ chat-logs were sourced from Italy. 

41: Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes - Focus on Parental Controls

Ofcom (Oct 2012) Full publication
A summary of Ofcom’s research on parental controls. This includes the results of Ofcom’s Children’s Media Literacy Tracker, a large-scale quantitative survey based on in-home interviews with children aged 5-15 and their parents/carers (N = 1717 conducted from March to April 2011). It also presents the results of qualitative research conducted during July 2012 with parents of children aged 5-15. This included a series of extended in-home family interviews, some of which included children, as well as group discussions with parents. A total of 85 parents and 10 children took part in the qualitative research.

40: Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes - Take Up and Use

Ofcom (Oct 2012) Full publication
A summary of the results of the Ofcom’s Children’s Media Literacy Tracker, a large-scale quantitative survey based on in-home interviews with children aged 5-15 and their parents/carers (N = 1717 conducted from March to April 2011). In 2012, this survey was also conducted with parents of children aged 3-4 (N= 190 interviews conducted in-home in March 2012).

39: Understanding Children’s Online Activities: Developing Research to Enhance Police Practice

Elena Martellozzo, Middlesex University (Apr 2012) 
A summary of the results of a qualitative study conducted in 4 schools located in diverse areas of London. It included 16 focus groups with 86 young people (age 10-16), and a small sample of 5 face-to-face interviews with head teachers and teachers.

38: Digital Parenting: An Evaluation

The Parent Zone (Aug 2012) Full publication
A summary of the findings of the evaluation of the Digital Parenting Magazine resource produced by Vodafone. 

37: Towards a better internet for children: Findings and recommendations from EU Kids Online to inform the CEO coalition 

EU Kids Online (Jun 2012) Full publication
A summary of the report presenting new findings and analysis of the EU Kids Online 25 country survey, and previously published findings relevant to EC Vice President Kroes’ CEO Coalition initiative to make the internet a better place for children. 

36: Identifying vulnerable children online and what strategies can help them

UKCCIS Evidence Group - Livingstone and Palmer (Jun 2012) Full publication
A report summarising the main findings and outcomes of the Vulnerability Seminar arranged by the UKCCIS Evidence Group on 24th January, 2012.

35: A qualitative study of children, young people and 'sexting'

Ringrose et al, commissioned by the NSPCC (Jun 2012) Full publication
A small-scale qualitative study using single-sex focus group interviews with 35 young people in years 8 and 10 in two inner city schools in London. An online ethnography was also conducted with 31 participants who accepted the researchers’ friending requests on Facebook, from which a further 22 students were selected from the focus groups for individual interviews.

34: EU Kids Online II Final Report 2011

EU Kids Online (Nov 2011) Full publication 
A summary of the recommendations of the Final Report of the EU Kids Online II Project. 

33: The protection of children online: a scoping review to identify vulnerable groups

Munro (Aug 2011) Full publication
A systematic literature review of research examining internet technology risks and online vulnerability.

32: Virtual Violence II: Progress and Challenges in the Fight against Cyberbullying (Teachers)

Beatbullying (Jun 2012)
Beatbullying’s second large-scale research study of cyberbullying among 11-16-year-olds in the UK aimed to explore the phenomenon of cyberbullying. Findings from teachers’ perspective. 

31: Virtual Violence II: Progress and Challenges in the Fight against Cyberbullying (Pupils)

Beatbullying (Jun 2012)
Beatbullying’s second large-scale research study of cyberbullying among 11-16 year olds in the UK aimed to explore the phenomenon of cyberbullying- findings from the pupils perspective.

30: Excessive social networking and young people

Mark Griffiths, Nottingham Trent University  (Jun 2012)
A systematic literature review was carried out examining excessive social networking addiction among children and adolescents.

29: Improving e-safety in primary schools

Lucy Shipton, Sheffield Hallam University (Aug 2011) Full publication 
A small scale qualitative study of the internet safety policies and procedures of two primary schools, based on interviews with teachers and focus groups with children.

28: Trends in media use

Childwise (May 2012) Full publication
A large scale quantitative survey of children and young people’s media ownership, internet access and social networking sites use

27: EU Kids Online – online safety and disadvantaged children

EU Kids Online (Aug 2011) Full publication
A large-scale quantitative study observing trends in the risk-taking behaviours of disadvantaged groups of children.

26: Children and parents media use and attitudes: Ofcom's children's media literacy tracker 2011

Ofcom (Oct 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative study of media use and attitudes in children, young people and their parents.

25: EU Kids Online - Patterns of risk and safety online

EU Kids Online and London School of Economics (Aug 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative study, comparing trends and patterns in internet use among children and young people in EU countries.

24: EU Kids Online - cross-national comparisons

EU Kids Online and London School of Economics (Aug 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative study, comparing trends and patterns in internet use, risk taking and harm between children and young people in EU countries.

23: EU Kids Online - Bullying

EU Kids Online and London School of Economics (Aug 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative study of online bullying.

22: Attitudes to online privacy

Andy Phippen, University of Plymouth (July 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative study, comprising an online survey of children and young people which assessed their attitudes to online privacy.

21: Online gambling and young people

Mark Griffiths, Nottingham Trent University (Nov 2011) 
A literature review on online gambling among young people.

20: Internet safety and children with special educational needs

Lucy Faithfull Foundation (Aug 2011) Full publication
A small scale qualitative study on the internet safety concerns of children with special educational needs, focusing on difficulties experienced online and safety measures taken.

19: Vulnerable young people, social media and e-safety

Stephen Carrick-Davies (July 2011) Full publication
A small scale qualitative study on vulnerable young people’s use of social media and mobile phones, revealing the link between offline-online vulnerability, risky behaviours online and consequences.

18: Ofsted – younger children’s views

Ofsted (April 2011) Full publication
A small scale quantitative survey on children’s views on personal safety – online and offline. 

17: Internet safety and schools

Department of Educational Research, Lancaster University (May 2011) Full publication
A small scale quantitative survey of issues faced by school about internet safety, revealing safety provisions and concerns. 

16: Trends in media use

Childwise (May 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative survey of children and young people’s media ownership, internet access and social networking sites use.

15: Children’s and young people’s internet use and parental attitudes: Ofcom’s children’s media literacy tracker 2010

Ofcom (April 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative survey of children and young people’s media literacy, revealing their engagement online and parental awareness and attitudes.

14: Social networking, age and privacy

EU Kids Online and London School of Economics (April 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative survey of children’s use of social networking sites, focusing on under-age use and privacy settings.

13: Policing online child sexual abuse

Elena Martellozzo, Middlesex University (in press)
A small scale ethnographic study of the police’s covert investigations on online child sexual abuse, focusing on their policing strategies and the grooming process unravelled.

12: Research highlights for children’s online gaming and addiction: a brief overview of the empirical literature

Mark Griffiths, Nottingham Trent University (Nov 2010)
A literature review on children’s online gaming, revealing its incidence and consequences.

11: Online safety policy and practice in the UK – an analysis of 360 degree safe self review data

South West Grid for Learning and University of Plymouth (Sept 2010) Full publication
A small scale quantitative survey of issues faced by school about internet safety, revealing safety provisions and concerns. 

10: Sharing personal images and videos among young people

University of Plymouth (Nov 2009) Full publication
A small scale quantitative study of the ‘sexting’ practices, uncovering its prevalence and young people’s attitudes about it. 

09: Benchmarking of parental control tools for the online protection of children, SIP-Bench II

EC Safer Internet Programme (Jan 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative review of various parental control tools for children’s online protection, revealing their effectiveness and limitations.

08: Children’s online risks and safety – review of available evidence

National Foundation for Educational Research (Mar 2010) Full publication
A literature review on children’s online risks and safety, pointing to its occurrence and the gaps in evidence. 

07: EU Kids Online II – European findings on risks and safety for children on the internet

EU Kids Online and London School of Economics (Jan 2010) Full publication
A large scale quantitative survey of children’s use of the internet, highlighting issues of risks, safety, and parental mediation. 

06: ‘Staying safe’ survey – findings for children’s internet safety

Department for Education (Feb 2010) Full publication
A large scale quantitative survey that measures parents’ and children’s awareness, attitudes and reported behaviours of the safety issues children encounter online.

05: EU Kids Online II – UK findings

EU Kids Online and London School of Economics (Jan 2011) Full publication
A large scale quantitative survey of children’s use of the internet, highlighting issues of risks, safety, and parental mediation.

04: Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) Centre strategic overview 2009-2010

Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (May 2010) Full publication
A large scale quantitative study of reports of online child abuse received by CEOP, bringing to light the forms and nature of these abuses.

03: Children’s and young people’s internet use and parental attitudes: Ofcom’s media literacy tracker – wave 1 2010

Ofcom (Aug 2010) Full publication
A large scale quantitative survey of children and young people’s media literacy, revealing their engagement online and parental awareness and attitudes.

02: Exploring online safety knowledge and evaluating CEOP’s Think U Know (TUK) education programme

Kingston University (July 2009) Full publication
A large scale mixed methods study of young people’s knowledge about internet safety and their understanding of the Think U Know programme.

01: Offender behaviour - lessons for online safety

Kingston University and EC Safer Internet Programme (April 2010) Full publication
A large scale study of qualitative interviews of online grooming offenders, revealing their behaviours and information of the young people groomed. 

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Additional Resources

Child online safety: Summary of recent research findings

Presentation by Sonia Livingstone and Julia Davidson at the Child Internet Safety Summit (11 July 2013)

Children's online activities - Risks and safety: A review of the UK evidence base

Report from UKCCIS Evidence Group (2012)

Identifying Vulnerable Children Online And What Strategies Can Help Them

Report from UKCCIS Evidence Group (2012)

Parents and Internet Safety

Report from HCI Discussion Groups (2009)
Department for Children, Schools and Families

The protection of children online: a brief scoping review to identify vulnerable groups

Munro (2011)
Childhood Wellbeing Research Centre

Children’s online risks and safety: A review of the available evidence

NFER (2010)
Commissioned by UKCCIS

Internet and Mobility: Youth Technology Trends 

Technology Trends Report
Funded by BT

UKCCIS Summit 2011 Presentation

Sonia Livingstone

The research documents on this web page do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department for Education or UKCCIS members, including its Executive Board. They provide evidence and statistics which may inform UKCCIS’s direction and work.